## Chapter 14 Stress concentrations UFL MAE

Methods Of Stress Reduction MentalHelp. DETERMINATION OF STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTOR IN STEAM TURBINE BLADE BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Sandip G Ghugal 1*, Rajendra K Pohane and Sandeep M Pimpalgaonkar1 *Corresponding Author: Sandip G Ghugal, s_ghugal@yahoo.co.in Geometric discontinuities cause a large variation of stress and produce a significant increase in stress. The stress at any discontinuity is higher than the normal stress …, the optimum method for decreasing stress concentration of each shell with every type of openings or holes. Key words: stress concentration, decrease methods, shell structure, opening, theoretical and.

### Chapter 3 Stress Concentration at Notches Springer

Evaluation and analysis of the stress concentration factor. Methods for Reducing Stress Concentration - Design for Strength, Machine Design video for Mechanical Engineering is made by best teachers who have written some of the best books of Mechanical Engineering., This paper presents an analytical method to reduce the stress concentration in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate, having a circular cutout, under axial loading. An exponential radial variation and the variation by the power law, of the Young’s modulus is assumed here. This is achieved by decomposing the plate into a number of rings..

The definition of hot-spot stress (14), as the region where fatigue cracking is most likely to initiate due to a stress concentration, proposed linear extrapolation of the maximum principal stresses, outside the region of weld toe influence, to the weld toe. developed to reduce stress concentration. The objective of this study is to show the quantitative comparison between the Buttress and ACME bolt and nut design modifications to improve the design methods efficiently to reduce the stress concentration.

Chapter 3 Stress Concentration at Notches 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Deﬁnition of K t 3.3 Analytical calculations on stress concentrations 3.4 Effect of the notch geometry on K t 3.5 Some additional aspects of stress concentrations 3.6 Superposition of notches 3.7 Methods for the determinations of stress concentrations 3.8 Main topics of the present chapter References 3.1 Introduction … Read "The variable-radius notch: Two new methods for reducing stress concentration, Engineering Failure Analysis" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.

DETERMINATION OF STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTOR IN STEAM TURBINE BLADE BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Sandip G Ghugal 1*, Rajendra K Pohane and Sandeep M Pimpalgaonkar1 *Corresponding Author: Sandip G Ghugal, s_ghugal@yahoo.co.in Geometric discontinuities cause a large variation of stress and produce a significant increase in stress. The stress at any discontinuity is higher than the normal stress … Relaxation techniques are a great way to help with stress management. Relaxation isn't only about peace of mind or enjoying a hobby. Relaxation is a process that decreases the effects of stress on your mind and body. Relaxation techniques can help you cope with everyday stress and with stress

Reduce weld created stresses by heat treatment (stress relieving /anealing). Welds to be high quality with no cracks, porosity and slag inclusions. Welds to have smooth profiles with no sharp corners at interface with parent metal. This accumulation of stress around the crack tip is known as a stress concentration. If the stress in this region builds up to a sufficient extent to be above the yield strength of the material then localised plastic deformation occurs and the crack increases in size.

Stress reduction methods can be thought of as serving two functions. Restorative : To reduce the unpleasant and unhealthy emotional effects of stressful events that have already occurred. Preventative : To help you avoid succumbing to stress in the first place (or at least buffer against and reduce the impact of upcoming inevitably stressful events). the stress concentration around a circular hole in a plate subjected to a uniaxial load is by introducing defense holes. A survey of the literature shows that this method has been the most studied.

The definition of hot-spot stress (14), as the region where fatigue cracking is most likely to initiate due to a stress concentration, proposed linear extrapolation of the maximum principal stresses, outside the region of weld toe influence, to the weld toe. APM-56-11 Stress Concentration Produced by Holes and Notches By A. M. WAHL1 a n d R. BEEUWKES, Jr.,2 EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. The problem of stress-concentration …

6/03/2017 · Design of Machine elements - Chap 1: Intro to Design - Method of reducing stress concentration. 6/09/2016 · Give some methods of reducing stress concentration? Geometrical features such as notches and corners give rise to stress concentrations. In …

6/03/2017 · Design of Machine elements - Chap 1: Intro to Design - Method of reducing stress concentration. As the figure shows, the potential for reducing stress concentration with these methods is very considerable. In this case a K t factor of 1.74 was reduced to 1.15 – a stress-reduction factor of 1.51.

Methods for Reducing Stress Concentration Design for. Approximate Stress-Concentration Factors Kts for a Round Bar or Tube Having a Transverse Round Hole and Loaded in Torsion Source: R. E. Peterson, Stress-Concentration Factors, Wiley, New York, 1974, pp. 148, 244. T D a T d The maximum stress occurs on the inside of the hole, slightly below the shaft surface. The nominal shear stress is τ0 = T D /2Jnet, where Jnet is a reduced value of the, The definition of hot-spot stress (14), as the region where fatigue cracking is most likely to initiate due to a stress concentration, proposed linear extrapolation of the maximum principal stresses, outside the region of weld toe influence, to the weld toe..

### 2-4 Stress Concentration Caused by Sudden Change in Form

Design Optimization of Stress Relief Grooves in Lever. A stress relief groove is introduced in the R area and the stress is analyzed using a finite element method (FEM). Then Then the relief of the stress concentration in the vicinity of the pressure vessel is measured based on these results., developed to reduce stress concentration. The objective of this study is to show the quantitative comparison between the Buttress and ACME bolt and nut design modifications to improve the design methods efficiently to reduce the stress concentration..

### Method of increasing the fatigue life and/or reducing

Give some methods of reducing stress concentration. Methods for Reducing Stress Concentration - Design for Strength, Machine Design video for Mechanical Engineering is made by best teachers who have written some of the best books of Mechanical Engineering. core and pressure loaded flank shows a high stress concentration. First the screw First the screw was optimized with the analytical pocket calculator method [3]..

Geometrical features such as notches and corners give rise to stress concentrations. In industrial components these features are often designed with a constant radius, however it is already known that a more complex shape, having a variable radius, can have a much lower stress concentration factor. The three ways of reducing the stress concentration are design modification, material changing without design modification and material change with design modification.

A stress concentration is defined as a high localized stress, compared to the average stress of the body, and is typically found in a region that has an abrupt geometric change. This article will walk through the basics of a stress concentration, offer real-world examples to illustrate the concept, and outline methods for reducing stress concentrations in your designs. This accumulation of stress around the crack tip is known as a stress concentration. If the stress in this region builds up to a sufficient extent to be above the yield strength of the material then localised plastic deformation occurs and the crack increases in size.

Abstract. Many techniques are available for the study of stress concentration around holes in rectangular plates. The distribution of stress and deflection in isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plate with central circular hole under transverse static loading has been done by applying finite element method. A stress concentration is defined as a high localized stress, compared to the average stress of the body, and is typically found in a region that has an abrupt geometric change. This article will walk through the basics of a stress concentration, offer real-world examples to illustrate the concept, and outline methods for reducing stress concentrations in your designs.

This paper presents an analytical method to reduce the stress concentration in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate, having a circular cutout, under axial loading. An exponential radial variation and the variation by the power law, of the Young’s modulus is assumed here. This is achieved by decomposing the plate into a number of rings. 6/03/2017 · Design of Machine elements - Chap 1: Intro to Design - Method of reducing stress concentration.

The three ways of reducing the stress concentration are design modification, material changing without design modification and material change with design modification. Stress reduction methods can be thought of as serving two functions. Restorative : To reduce the unpleasant and unhealthy emotional effects of stressful events that have already occurred. Preventative : To help you avoid succumbing to stress in the first place (or at least buffer against and reduce the impact of upcoming inevitably stressful events).

The three ways of reducing the stress concentration are design modification, material changing without design modification and material change with design modification. They develop high stress concentration at the root and the point of contact. The repeated stressing on the fillets causes the fatigue failure of gear tooth. The main objective of this study is to add different shaped holes to reduce stress concentration. A finite element model of Spur gear with a segment of three teeth is considered for analysis and stress concentration reducing holes of

The stress concentration factor for static load can be determined as the relation of the actual maximum real stress in the discontinuity and the average stress, and is obtained through the equation 1 [3]. The Variable Radius Notch-Two New Methods for Reducing Stress Concentration.pdf (Published (author's copy) - Peer Reviewed) 698.5Kb Abstract: Geometrical features such as notches and corners give rise to stress concentrations.

features to reduce the root fillet stress in spur gear. A pilot model was established to predict von Mises stress at the root fillet of the gear without holes and was used as a reference model. Finite element modeling was adopted using Abaqus® package. The predicted stresses were compared with stresses obtained by AGMA analytical solution. A good agreement was found in the comparison between Stress can be bad for your mental and physical health. Learn ways to manage and reduce stress in your everyday life. Learn ways to manage and reduce stress in your everyday life. Skip to main content

## Numerical investigation on the position of holes for

'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIVWUHVVFRQFHQWUDWLRQIDFWRUVRQ. stress concentration at the screw holes is greater for the open holes compared to the plugged holes. The average loss of The average loss of strength for all the segments was 40.0% ± 17.3 for open holes and 30.0% ± 20.2 for plugged holes, (P < 0.01)., A method of increasing the fatigue life and/or reducing stress corrosion cracking of metal coiled tubing made from a continuous length of strip material by shot peening one or both sides of the strip material along substantially the entire length of the strip material prior to milling the strip material into tubing. The continuous length of.

### A Study on the Influence of using Stress Relieving Feature

Numerical investigation on the position of holes for. DETERMINATION OF STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTOR IN STEAM TURBINE BLADE BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Sandip G Ghugal 1*, Rajendra K Pohane and Sandeep M Pimpalgaonkar1 *Corresponding Author: Sandip G Ghugal, s_ghugal@yahoo.co.in Geometric discontinuities cause a large variation of stress and produce a significant increase in stress. The stress at any discontinuity is higher than the normal stress …, 6/03/2017 · Design of Machine elements - Chap 1: Intro to Design - Method of reducing stress concentration..

Methods for Reducing Stress Concentration - Design for Strength, Previous Year Questions with Solutions, video lectures, Semester Notes, shortcuts and tricks, Exam, pdf , MCQs, practice quizzes, Viva Questions, Free, Objective type Questions, Extra Questions; By Fatigue can be a normal and important response to physical exertion, poor eating habits, emotional stress, boredom, or lack of sleep. In some cases, however, fatigue is a symptom of an underlying medical problem that requires medical treatment.

As the figure shows, the potential for reducing stress concentration with these methods is very considerable. In this case a K t factor of 1.74 was reduced to 1.15 – a stress-reduction factor of 1.51. How to manage stress This booklet is for anyone who wants to learn how to manage stress. It explains what stress is, what might cause it and how it can affect you. It also includes information about ways you can help yourself and how to get support, as well as providing tips for friends and family. 3 Contents What is stress? 4 What are the signs of stress? 6 What causes stress? 7 How can I

approach is to strive to reduce stress concentration effect at the critical stressed areas. Following design alternatives are some creative design approach to reduce stress concentration. In each of the cases, the change is section geometry has been introduced more gradually. Common methods to induce compressive residual stress are shot peening for surfaces and High frequency impact treatment for weld toes. Depth of compressive residual stress varies depending of the method. Both methods can increase lifetime of constructions significiantly.

Abstract. Many techniques are available for the study of stress concentration around holes in rectangular plates. The distribution of stress and deflection in isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plate with central circular hole under transverse static loading has been done by applying finite element method. The effects of stress raisers are usually given in terms of a stress concentration factor, K, which is the factor by which the stress at the considered discontinuity is raised over the nominal stress …

Chapter 3 Stress Concentration at Notches 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Deﬁnition of K t 3.3 Analytical calculations on stress concentrations 3.4 Effect of the notch geometry on K t 3.5 Some additional aspects of stress concentrations 3.6 Superposition of notches 3.7 Methods for the determinations of stress concentrations 3.8 Main topics of the present chapter References 3.1 Introduction … important to realize that stress concentration affects the fatigue strength of machine parts severely and therefore it is extremely important that this effect be considered …

The Variable Radius Notch-Two New Methods for Reducing Stress Concentration.pdf (Published (author's copy) - Peer Reviewed) 698.5Kb Abstract: Geometrical features such as notches and corners give rise to stress concentrations. core and pressure loaded flank shows a high stress concentration. First the screw First the screw was optimized with the analytical pocket calculator method [3].

Abstract. Many techniques are available for the study of stress concentration around holes in rectangular plates. The distribution of stress and deflection in isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plate with central circular hole under transverse static loading has been done by applying finite element method. The effects of stress raisers are usually given in terms of a stress concentration factor, K, which is the factor by which the stress at the considered discontinuity is raised over the nominal stress …

features to reduce the root fillet stress in spur gear. A pilot model was established to predict von Mises stress at the root fillet of the gear without holes and was used as a reference model. Finite element modeling was adopted using Abaqus® package. The predicted stresses were compared with stresses obtained by AGMA analytical solution. A good agreement was found in the comparison between The three ways of reducing the stress concentration are design modification, material changing without design modification and material change with design modification.

core and pressure loaded flank shows a high stress concentration. First the screw First the screw was optimized with the analytical pocket calculator method [3]. The definition of hot-spot stress (14), as the region where fatigue cracking is most likely to initiate due to a stress concentration, proposed linear extrapolation of the maximum principal stresses, outside the region of weld toe influence, to the weld toe.

method is simple and minmizes stress concentrations at the end of the pipe. The stress concentration factors which resulted from the applied in-plane moments are listed in … They develop high stress concentration at the root and the point of contact. The repeated stressing on the fillets causes the fatigue failure of gear tooth. The main objective of this study is to add different shaped holes to reduce stress concentration. A finite element model of Spur gear with a segment of three teeth is considered for analysis and stress concentration reducing holes of

6/03/2017 · Design of Machine elements - Chap 1: Intro to Design - Method of reducing stress concentration. Approximate Stress-Concentration Factors Kts for a Round Bar or Tube Having a Transverse Round Hole and Loaded in Torsion Source: R. E. Peterson, Stress-Concentration Factors, Wiley, New York, 1974, pp. 148, 244. T D a T d The maximum stress occurs on the inside of the hole, slightly below the shaft surface. The nominal shear stress is τ0 = T D /2Jnet, where Jnet is a reduced value of the

method is simple and minmizes stress concentrations at the end of the pipe. The stress concentration factors which resulted from the applied in-plane moments are listed in … The problem of determining stress distributions and reducing stress concentrations around holes in plates occurs in numerous design situations. One method for reducing the stress concentration around a central circular hole in a uniaxially loaded plate was demonstrated by …

therefore be given to this area to avoid stress concentration. Fig. 9 graphically represents the effect the root radius has on stress concentration. At first glance, it seems that an optimum reduction in stress concentration is obtained using the ratio R/h as 0.6 since only a marginal reduction occurs after this point. However, using R/h of 0.6 would result in a thick area at the intersec-tion APM-56-11 Stress Concentration Produced by Holes and Notches By A. M. WAHL1 a n d R. BEEUWKES, Jr.,2 EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. The problem of stress-concentration …

the optimum method for decreasing stress concentration of each shell with every type of openings or holes. Key words: stress concentration, decrease methods, shell structure, opening, theoretical and The Variable Radius Notch: Two New Methods for Reducing Stress Concentration, Engineering Failure Analysis (2010), doi: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2010.12.012 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication.

Includes new guidelines for the likely stress decay away from the point of the stress concentration for various holes and notches. 3. New finite element methods for analyzing and calculating the stress concentration factors of the length of elements and of the location of loading on components. A method of increasing the fatigue life and/or reducing stress corrosion cracking of metal coiled tubing made from a continuous length of strip material by shot peening one or both sides of the strip material along substantially the entire length of the strip material prior to milling the strip material into tubing. The continuous length of

The problem of determining stress distributions and reducing stress concentrations around holes in plates occurs in numerous design situations. One method for reducing the stress concentration around a central circular hole in a uniaxially loaded plate was demonstrated by … analytically ﬁnd the stress concentration factor, K, at the hole. The problem is solved by superposing solutions of The problem is solved by superposing solutions of two problems – one of uniform biaxial tension and the other of pure shear.

As the figure shows, the potential for reducing stress concentration with these methods is very considerable. In this case a K t factor of 1.74 was reduced to 1.15 – a stress-reduction factor of 1.51. 14/05/1996 · A method of increasing the fatigue life and/or reducing stress corrosion cracking of metal coiled tubing made from a continuous length of strip material by shot peening one or both sides of the strip material along substantially the entire length of the …

### Method of increasing the fatigue life and/or reducing

Stress Ways to Manage and Reduce It WebMD. core and pressure loaded flank shows a high stress concentration. First the screw First the screw was optimized with the analytical pocket calculator method [3]., the optimum method for decreasing stress concentration of each shell with every type of openings or holes. Key words: stress concentration, decrease methods, shell structure, opening, theoretical and.

Chapter 14 Stress concentrations UFL MAE. Stress Concentration Factors and Notch Sensitivity Lecture 4 Engineering 473 Machine Design . Photoelasticity www.measurementsgroup.com Photoelasticity is a visual method for viewing the full field stress distribution in a photoelastic material. Photoelasticity (Continued) When a photoelastic material is strained and viewed with a polariscope, distinctive colored fringe patterns are seen, stress concentration at the screw holes is greater for the open holes compared to the plugged holes. The average loss of The average loss of strength for all the segments was 40.0% ± 17.3 for open holes and 30.0% ± 20.2 for plugged holes, (P < 0.01)..

### Fatigue fighting tips Better Health Channel

DETERMINATION OF STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTOR IN. on different methods of stress concentration reduction, the optimal method for stress concentration reduction was presented in perforated plates under tensile. INTRODUCTION The present study aims to calculate stress concentration factors in perforated plates under tensile loading using finite element method and to present some solutions to reduce and optimize such factors. Also, some economic Common methods to induce compressive residual stress are shot peening for surfaces and High frequency impact treatment for weld toes. Depth of compressive residual stress varies depending of the method. Both methods can increase lifetime of constructions significiantly..

method is simple and minmizes stress concentrations at the end of the pipe. The stress concentration factors which resulted from the applied in-plane moments are listed in … 3.6 Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration at a Shoulder 147 References 149 Charts 151 4 HOLES 176 4.1 Notation 176 4.2 Stress Concentration Factors 178 4.3 Circular Holes with In-Plane Stresses 180 4.3.1 Single Circular Hole in an Inﬁnite Thin Element in Uniaxial Tension 180. CONTENTS xi 4.3.2 Single Circular Hole in a Semi-inﬁnite Element in Uniaxial Tension 184 4.3.3 Single Circular

Stress reduction methods can be thought of as serving two functions. Restorative : To reduce the unpleasant and unhealthy emotional effects of stressful events that have already occurred. Preventative : To help you avoid succumbing to stress in the first place (or at least buffer against and reduce the impact of upcoming inevitably stressful events). The problem of determining stress distributions and reducing stress concentrations around holes in plates occurs in numerous design situations. One method for reducing the stress concentration around a central circular hole in a uniaxially loaded plate was demonstrated by …

features to reduce the root fillet stress in spur gear. A pilot model was established to predict von Mises stress at the root fillet of the gear without holes and was used as a reference model. Finite element modeling was adopted using Abaqus® package. The predicted stresses were compared with stresses obtained by AGMA analytical solution. A good agreement was found in the comparison between Approximate Stress-Concentration Factors Kts for a Round Bar or Tube Having a Transverse Round Hole and Loaded in Torsion Source: R. E. Peterson, Stress-Concentration Factors, Wiley, New York, 1974, pp. 148, 244. T D a T d The maximum stress occurs on the inside of the hole, slightly below the shaft surface. The nominal shear stress is τ0 = T D /2Jnet, where Jnet is a reduced value of the

The stress concentration factor for static load can be determined as the relation of the actual maximum real stress in the discontinuity and the average stress, and is obtained through the equation 1 [3]. As the figure shows, the potential for reducing stress concentration with these methods is very considerable. In this case a K t factor of 1.74 was reduced to 1.15 – a stress-reduction factor of 1.51.

Fatigue can be a normal and important response to physical exertion, poor eating habits, emotional stress, boredom, or lack of sleep. In some cases, however, fatigue is a symptom of an underlying medical problem that requires medical treatment. Stress Concentration Factors and Notch Sensitivity Lecture 4 Engineering 473 Machine Design . Photoelasticity www.measurementsgroup.com Photoelasticity is a visual method for viewing the full field stress distribution in a photoelastic material. Photoelasticity (Continued) When a photoelastic material is strained and viewed with a polariscope, distinctive colored fringe patterns are seen

Relaxation techniques are a great way to help with stress management. Relaxation isn't only about peace of mind or enjoying a hobby. Relaxation is a process that decreases the effects of stress on your mind and body. Relaxation techniques can help you cope with everyday stress and with stress Abstract. Many techniques are available for the study of stress concentration around holes in rectangular plates. The distribution of stress and deflection in isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plate with central circular hole under transverse static loading has been done by applying finite element method.

Reduce weld created stresses by heat treatment (stress relieving /anealing). Welds to be high quality with no cracks, porosity and slag inclusions. Welds to have smooth profiles with no sharp corners at interface with parent metal. therefore be given to this area to avoid stress concentration. Fig. 9 graphically represents the effect the root radius has on stress concentration. At first glance, it seems that an optimum reduction in stress concentration is obtained using the ratio R/h as 0.6 since only a marginal reduction occurs after this point. However, using R/h of 0.6 would result in a thick area at the intersec-tion

6/09/2016 · Give some methods of reducing stress concentration? Geometrical features such as notches and corners give rise to stress concentrations. In … The Variable Radius Notch: Two New Methods for Reducing Stress Concentration, Engineering Failure Analysis (2010), doi: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2010.12.012 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication.

The problem of determining stress distributions and reducing stress concentrations around holes in plates occurs in numerous design situations. One method for reducing the stress concentration around a central circular hole in a uniaxially loaded plate was demonstrated by … Geometrical features such as notches and corners give rise to stress concentrations. In industrial components these features are often designed with a constant radius, however it is already known that a more complex shape, having a variable radius, can have a much lower stress concentration factor.

A stress relief groove is introduced in the R area and the stress is analyzed using a finite element method (FEM). Then Then the relief of the stress concentration in the vicinity of the pressure vessel is measured based on these results. Chapter 14: Stress concentrations • Locally high stresses can arise due to – Abrupt changes in section properties (hole, corner) – Contact stresses (bearing, gear, etc)

The results show that this method can reduce the stress around the hole significantly, notch depth and arc length have an important impact on the stress concentration factor (SCF), the SCF Chapter 3 Stress Concentration at Notches 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Deﬁnition of K t 3.3 Analytical calculations on stress concentrations 3.4 Effect of the notch geometry on K t 3.5 Some additional aspects of stress concentrations 3.6 Superposition of notches 3.7 Methods for the determinations of stress concentrations 3.8 Main topics of the present chapter References 3.1 Introduction …

A stress relief groove is introduced in the R area and the stress is analyzed using a finite element method (FEM). Then Then the relief of the stress concentration in the vicinity of the pressure vessel is measured based on these results. APM-56-11 Stress Concentration Produced by Holes and Notches By A. M. WAHL1 a n d R. BEEUWKES, Jr.,2 EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. The problem of stress-concentration …

A method of increasing the fatigue life and/or reducing stress corrosion cracking of metal coiled tubing made from a continuous length of strip material by shot peening one or both sides of the strip material along substantially the entire length of the strip material prior to milling the strip material into tubing. The continuous length of The effects of stress raisers are usually given in terms of a stress concentration factor, K, which is the factor by which the stress at the considered discontinuity is raised over the nominal stress …

method is simple and minmizes stress concentrations at the end of the pipe. The stress concentration factors which resulted from the applied in-plane moments are listed in … Approximate Stress-Concentration Factors Kts for a Round Bar or Tube Having a Transverse Round Hole and Loaded in Torsion Source: R. E. Peterson, Stress-Concentration Factors, Wiley, New York, 1974, pp. 148, 244. T D a T d The maximum stress occurs on the inside of the hole, slightly below the shaft surface. The nominal shear stress is τ0 = T D /2Jnet, where Jnet is a reduced value of the

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